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Economic changes brought by the Mongols in East Asia

  1. •Mongol leaders kept in touch, exchanged new technologies and ideas •Il-Khan science & technology exported to China •Scholars and texts imported from China to Middle East •Observatories set up across Central Asia •Algebra and Trig to China; Fractions to Middle East •Islamic and Persian medicine to Chin
  2. East Asia - China Yuan Dynasty / Khanate of the Great Khan Russia Khanate of the Golden Horde Middle East Il-Khan Empire Political Changes Brought by the Mongols Economic Changes Brought by the Mongols Cultural Changes Brought by the Mongols Transfers of Greco-Islamic medical knowledge to Europe Transfer of numbering system
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  4. During the Mongol Empire, merchants found protection, status, tax exemption, loans and consistent aid from the Khans. For the 100 years of the height of the Empire, the East-West Mongol trade routes became the fabled Silk Road which for the first time linked Europe to Asia, allowing the free flow of ideas, technologies and goods
  5. Historically, Mongols supplemented their economy by trade and raiding. They never developed a merchant class. traded animals, fur, and hides for grain, tea, silk, cloth, and manufactured items with Chinese and Russian trading companies. Th
  6. The most important effects that the Mongols had on Europe and Asia were increasing the flow of goods and knowledge between the two regions, the unification of present day Russia and the introduction of new diseases. For example, knowledge of gun-making traveled from Asia to Europe during Mongol rule

Free Essay: Political and economic effects of Mongol rule

The Mongolian Empire was one of the largest empires in history, stretching across much of Europe and Asia in the 13th and 14th centuries. The empire resulted from the unification of nomadic Mongolian tribes under the supreme ruler Genghis Khan around 1206 CE. The Mongols rapidly expanded their empire as they invaded, conquered, and enforced Mongolian rule across thousands of miles Prior to the Mongolian invasion in Persia, the majority of their economy was rooted either in urban cities or advanced agriculture After the conquest, their well established system was widely replaced with stock-raising, a trademark of nomadic societies like the Mongols The Mongols' Middle East: Continuity and Transformation in Ilkhanid Iran offers a collection of academic articles that investigate different aspects of Mongol rule in 13th- and 14th-century Iran. Sometimes treated only as part of the larger Mongol Empire, the volume focuses on the Ilkhanate (1258-1335) with particular reference to its relations with its immediate neighbours Economic changes also came about with the Mongols. The Mongols reopened trade along the Silk Road between China and the Middle East, which allowed the economy to flourish. Silk, porcelain, and paper were widely valued in the Middle East and Europe, which led to a higher demand Name:_____ Date:_____ Period:_____ Unit 2, Topic 2.2: Impacts of the Mongols East Asia - China Yuan Dynasty / Khanate of the Great Khan Russia Khanate of the Golden Horde Middle East Il-Khan Empire Political Changes Brought by the Mongols Beijing is a capital Formed a centralized bureaucracy Reformed China to have a close social hierarchy The cities were controlled by the Mongols Laborers.

The Mongols completely reformed several countries in the Middle East and Asia, with political as well as economic change. The Mongol era helped unite China and formed the Yuan and Ming Empire. The Mongols caused many political changes within China and Russia. Mongol rule brought about man Political & Economic Effects of Mongol Rule The Mongols ruled one of the biggest land empires the world has ever seen. Its empire influenced many regions in Europe and Asia. While the Mongols had a larger political influence in China for a short period, the Mongols influenced Russia which w.. The mere shock of the force and size of the Mongol army was devastating. The distress was just as political and economic in nature as it was social and spiritual. The Mongol forces claimed that they were sent by God, and the Russians believed that the Mongols were indeed sent by God as a punishment for their sins Mongols Support Trade, Facilitating East-West Contacts Along with Western missionaries, traders from the West (particularly from Genoa) began to arrive in the Mongol domains, mostly in Persia and eventually farther east. The Mongols were quite receptive to this Mongol empire - Mongol empire - The Golden Horde: The situation in Batu's ulus was for a long time dominated by antagonism to the Il-Khan empire. For more than a century the rulers of the Golden Horde, or Kipchak Khanate, tried to occupy the Caucasus and advance into Iran. This led to an anti-Persian alliance with Egypt. In the economic field, too, relations between the Golden Horde and.

He ordered a new census and decreed that each man in the Mongol-ruled Middle East must pay in proportion to his property. Persia was divided between four districts under Arghun. Möngke Khan granted the Kartids authority over Herat, Jam, Pushang (Fushanj), Ghor , Khaysar, Firuz-Kuh, Gharjistan, Farah, Sistan , Kabul, Tirah, and Afghanistan Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368): The Economy. Sources. Agricultural Policies. As the first nomadic conquerors to rule over China, the Mongols have been blamed by traditional historians for the damage to and destruction of the agriculture-based Chinese economy during the Yuan period The Mongols Conquer an Empire, Opening Trade and Communication between East and West Overview. The Middle Ages in Europe and the Middle East were marked by three invasions of Central Asian nomads: the Huns, the Turks, and finally the Mongols. The latter would conquer the largest empire of all and exert an enormous influence on history, paving the way for the Age of Exploration EAST & SOUTHEAST ASIA 1450 -1750 Transitions and the Quest for Political Stability. THE MING DYANSTY • Ming government (1368-1644) • Drove the Mongols out of China ECONOMIC, SOCIAL CHANGE The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northward into parts of the Arctic; eastward and southward into.

The Mongol Empire spread from Eastern Asia towards the Middle East, and an important consequence of this expansion was the creation of the so-called Silk Road, a crucial economic route that connected the countries of Europe with the farthest corners of Asia. The Mongols carried new inventions back and forth across Eurasia, and many of. Changes under Kublai Khan and his successors. Kublai Khan's ascendancy in 1260 marked a definite change in Mongol government practice. Kublai moved the seat of Mongol government from Karakorum in Mongolia to Shangdu (Upper Capital), near present-day Dolun in Inner Mongolia. In 1267 the official capital was transferred to Zhongdu, where Kublai ordered the construction of a new walled. Undeterred, Kublai launched attacks in South East Asia with invasions of Vietnam (1257, 1281, and 1286 CE), Burma (1277 and 1287 CE) and Java (1292 CE), all achieving only mixed results. It seemed the Mongol Empire had reached its zenith and the 13th century CE would now only see a decline. The Khanates and Declin Changes to the government and administration structure throughout the country, and the fiscal and economic implications that this brought about were directly tied in with the Mongol's introduction of the new hierarchy, rendering them equally important in the context of the question mongol rule brought a swift end to religious dominance by the orthodox church. changes of distribution of cities in the period 1200 and 1400 best support which of the following conclusions. mongol conquests had a more disruptive impact on the middle east and central asia than they had on east asia

Which of the following accurately describes the Mongol Empire's role in facilitating trans-Eurasian trade? A. It imposed Mongol religious beliefs and practices on conquered peoples B. It reestablished the Silk Roads between East Asia and Europe C. It created a self-contained economic system by banning non-Mongol merchants from its territories D The Mongols in China Life in China under Mongol Rule: For Peasants . The Mongols gave strong support to the peasants and peasant economy of China, believing that the success of the peasant economy would bring in additional tax revenues and ultimately benefit the Mongols themselves The History of East Asia generally encompasses the histories of China, Japan and Korea from prehistoric times to the present. East Asia is not a uniform term and each of its countries has a different national history, but scholars maintain that the region is also characterized by a distinct pattern of historical development. This is evident in the interrelationship among East Asian countries. The Mongol rule kept the Russians isolated from other countries and took away power from the highest nobility as well as restructured the entire Russian army. This led to the inability for Russia to develop its intellectual pursuits, political parties or structure and economic system

The fighting strength of the Mongols also helped facilitate trade. With their military garrisons (units) positioned across the empire, Mongol leadership provided security to trading cities and traders. The Mongol interest in securing trade routes was strictly economic. The Mongols themselves did not produce anything of substantial value The Mongol invasions and conquests of the 13th century are arguably among the most influential set of events in world history. This nomadic group from Central Asia swept south and east, just as the Huns had done several centuries before. They conquered China, India, the Middle East, and the budding kingdom of Russia. As it is, the Mongols East Asia: Change Japanese Shogunate (The Shogunate in Japan did not rule at first but did catch on and eventually they were the ruling class. This is an example of a Political Change), Neo-Confucianism (The rise of Neo-Confucianism in an attempt to smolder buddhism in China was a Social/Cultural change), Chinese Expansion into Vietnam. The Mongols also introduced guns and gunpowder to Europe during their invasion, which led European states to develop firearms technology and build separate armies. With the tribes of Mongolia united into one nation, Genghis Khan and his descendants imposed and followed the Yasa, or law code. They also oversaw a single army, the first of its. Missionaries from Rome: Bridging East and West The Mongol Era brought about the first instances of direct contact between Europe and Mongol-ruled China. The Mongol attacks on Hungary and Poland in 1241 had alerted the Europeans to the power of the Mongols and so frightened them that, in 1245, the Pope in Rome called an Ecumenica

Political and economic effects of Mongol rule on China and

The Song dynasty (; Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960-1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of the Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.The Song often came into conflict with the contemporaneous Liao, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. When the Yuan dynasty collapsed, the Ming dynasty restored native rule to China. The founder of the Ming dynasty, drove the Mongols out of China and built a tightly centralized state. He made extensive use of mandarins, imperial officials who traveled throughout the land and oversaw implementation of government policies.; By modeling their governmental structure on the centralized imperial. He told of the Mongols, who under Genghis and then Kublai Khan had taken over China and expanded their dominion across Asia into Central Asia, India, Iran, and Asia Minor. Polo related fantastic tales of the lands he had visited, the great sites he had seen, and the vast treasures of Asia Central and East Asia: the Revival of China and the Impact of the Mongols. Economic Changes and Social Distinctions. Cultural Developments Shaped by Turkik and Chinese culture brought hundreds of Buddhist texts from India he used to help people understand Buddhism i

China - China - Social, political, and cultural changes: The years from the 8th century bce to 221 bce witnessed the painful birth of a unified China. It was a period of bloody wars and also of far-reaching changes in politics, society, and intellectual outlook. The most obvious change in political institutions was that the old feudal structure was replaced by systems of incipient bureaucracy. Diseases were constantly being brought over to the Americas by European and East Asian immigrants. Changes: The slave trade ends, causing slavery to transfer to indentured servitude. Indentured servants from India and East Asia go to the Americas. Imperialism inspired migrations such as the British movement to South Africa Beijing tours: Beijing (then called Dadu —'Big Capital') was the capital of the Yuan Dynasty and has continued to be China's capital for most of the following 800 years. Discover the enduring charm of the 'big capital' with China Highlights. Silk Road tours: Their control of the Silk Road's northern land route to Central Asia gave the Mongols a major source of income and manpower The Mongols were a nomadic tribe originating from modern day Mongolia who quickly spanned across nearly all of Eurasia, stretching from the Middle East to the eastern coast of China. In fact, the only places that were successful in fighting off the Mongols were Japan (who were aided by frequent typhoons) and India

Importance of Industrial Sector in Economic Development

History of East Asia Introduction Cultural Foundations. Greco-Roman culture is the foundation of Western civilization; all Western nations (despite their immense diversity) therefore have much in common, culturally speaking. Several other large regions of the world, namely South Asia, East Asia, and the Middle East, also feature a shared cultural foundation (see Global Civilizations) Metallurgy reached China sometime around 2500 BCE, almost certainly from the west. It first appears in East Asia in the central Asian steppes, where semi-nomadic peoples, with a culture clearly linked to those in the Caspian and Black Sea regions, lived. Amongst these peoples, a pastoral economy based on the rearing of sheep and cattle. The Roles of China and Russia in the post-Mongol Period Once the Mongols were out of the picture, the role of Central Asia changed. This has a lot to do with the after-effects of the Mongol rule. In the east, the Chinese became increasingly xenophobic. As a result, China was more and more isolated Juvayni, later a court historian for the Mongols, reported that it took survivors thirteen days and nights to count all of the corpses following the fall of Merv; they reportedly numbered 1.3 million, though this number may be inflated. According to David Morgan, Mongol actions in Central Asia were an attempted genocide. [2

Mongol Trade: Linking East to West - Histor

  1. Beginning in 1206 large parts of Eurasia came under the sway of the Chinggissid Mongols. In 1260 the united Mongol Empire came to an end and divided into four khanates ruled by the progenies of Chinggis Khan. The four khanates were the Yuan (centered at China), the Ilkhanate (Middle East), the Golden Horde (Russia and the Caucasus), and the Chaghadaids (Central Asia)
  2. China in East Asia. They brought peace to north-western China and expanded their control to the borders of Tibet, an area north of the Himalaya. China claimed to be the greatest power in East Asia. Neighboring states, including Korea, offered tribute Sui Empire, 581Ð618 Tang Empire, 618Ð907 Song Empire, 960Ð1279 Grand Canal Silk Roa
  3. It reached its greatest height during the Mongol Peace (c. 1260 -1368 CE), under the rule of the nomadic Mongols West Africa traded with other parts of the Muslim world in a trans-Saharan network Merchants from China, India, and Southeast Asia could trade with those from Arabia and East Africa via the Indian Ocea
  4. Between 1206 and 1368, an obscure group of Central Asian nomads exploded across the steppes and established the world's largest contiguous empire in history - the Mongol Empire. Led by their oceanic leader, Genghis Khan (Chinggus Khan), the Mongols took control of approximately 24,000,000 square kilometers (9,300,000 square miles) of Eurasia from the backs of their sturdy little horses
  5. ate poverty and deal with the effects of climate change, then it will need to invest $1.7trn a year in.
  6. The Mongols had seen a limited incursion into the Middle East when Baiju conquered the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in 1243. However, further campaigns into Baghdad were canceled at that time due to the instability of the newly acquired Asia Minor and the political troubles in Karakorum
(PDF) German Unification 1815-1871 and Its Relevance for

Economy - Mongols - Cultur

A Global Trade Power . During the Middle Ages, the Islamic world was a global center of trade, culture, and learning. Arab Muslim traders dominated the rich trade in spices, silk, porcelain, and jewels that flowed into Europe from China, Indonesia, and India.Muslim scholars had preserved and translated the great works of science and medicine from classical Greece and Rome, combined that with. Mongol rulers adapted to the Chinese political system and made use of Chinese bureaucrats. Over time, the Mongol dynasty won the support of many Chinese people. How did the Mongols rule China? Part 2: The Mongols increased trade, especially along the Silk Road Mongol Invasions of Central Asia and Middle East. Ilkhanid horse archer. Ibn al-Athir wrote in On The Tatars (1220-1221): For these were a people who emerged from the confines of China, and attacked the cities of Turkestan, like Kashghar and Balasaghun, and thence advanced on the cities of Transoxiana, such as Samarqand, Bukhara and. It is probable that the Mongols and merchant caravans inadvertently brought the plague from central Asia to the Middle East and Europe. The plague was reported in the trading cities of Constantinople and Trebizond in 1344. How were the Mongols responsible for the Black Death? According to legend, the Mongols catapulted the corpses of plague [

How Did the Mongols Affect Europe and Asia

All of these economic changes and innovations came about due to the vastly increased trade Europeans where doing via their colonies in the New World and especially with India and East Asia as they came up with ways to manage and control all this new wealth The Mongols created a single economic, cultural, and epidemiological world system Mongol Exchange. New methods of warfare. Trade from Venice to Beijing and beyond. Demographic change via the plague and major population shifts. Altered the political histories of Russia, China, Europe. Unparalleled cultural diffusio The same trade routes that brought these new goods and technologies also brought disease. The Black Death was introduced to Europe from China by the Mongols. This disease would wipe out nearly.

The Mongols also eliminated tariffs throughout their empire. Because of this trade flourished in the Middle East as it did in China. The Mongol rule in China and the Middle East was very different politically in that the Mongols allowed the leaders in the Middle East to remain while in China they did not Demographic Change and Economic Growth in Asia David E. Bloom Jocelyn E. Finlay Harvard School of Public Health September 2008 Draft: Please do not cite without permission from the authors Abstract In 1994 the World Bank called East Asia's strong economic growth performance a miracle The Pax Mongolica, Latin for Mongol peace, describes a period of relative stability in Eurasia under the Mongol Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries.The Pax Mongolica brought a period of stability among the people who lived in the conquered territory. After the death of the first Mongol emperor, Genghis Khan, in 1227, the resulting empire extended from the China's Pacific coast to. Mongol leader Genghis Khan (1162-1227) rose from humble beginnings to establish the largest land empire in history. After uniting the nomadic tribes of the Mongolian plateau, he conquered huge.

The East Asian state of Mongolia gave birth to the Mongol Empire, the largest empire in human history by area. It contains China, which has the biggest population in the world at more than 1.4 billion, and the second-biggest economy in the world in terms of GDP, rivalled only by the United States The Mongols had a significant impact on Asia,Asia Minor, and Europe. I'll focus on the Muslims first. The Mongols had their empire fractured shortly after Genghis Khan's death and the nation that occupied the Persian section of his empire was call.. The bulk of that growth will come from the developing markets of China, India and throughout South-East Asia and it will give rise to a host of new decisions for businesses, governments and NGOs. The pressure will be on them to guide Asia's development in a way that is equitable and designed to solve a host of social and economic problems Military forces penetrated the Wall as well. In 1271, for example, the Mongols under Kublai Khan swept into China and established a dynasty that lasted until 1368. This was a unique interlude, for Mongol chauvinism did not allow assimilation into Chinese culture. They retained instead most of their own customs, including their culinary practices

Compare and Contrast Economic and Political Effects of the

5) analyze the political and economic changes and

Asian sojourners also brought religion, customs, traditions, and court practices to the region. Hence, their relationship was economic and cultural at the same time. Moreover, local Southeast Asian rulers used and indigenized practices of kingship institutions from South Asia ( rajadharma ) and West Asia (sultanate) Mongol rule, however, did bring some economic boon to the whole region. The Mongol empire established a network that allowed for easier long distance trade, with respect to goods, technology, and ideas. As early as 1200, the Mongols were experimenting with gunpowder in China and its export via the Mongol empire was good for the Chinese markets By all standards of the modern world—economic development, literacy, scientific achievement—Muslim civilization, once a mighty enterprise, has fallen low. Many in the Middle East blame a.

South East Asia history 2500BCE Population movements At around this time, a series of major population movements begin to affect this region. Starting in southern China and Taiwan, farming and fishing communities begin to move south and west, into the coasts and islands of South East Asia South East Asia is taken in this history to include the countries of the Asian mainland south of China, from Burma in the west to Vietnam in the east and the islands from Sumatra in the west to the Philippines and New Guinea in the east. It does not include Taiwan (Formosa), whose history seems to be more naturally part of that of China

Effects of the Mongol Empire on Europe - ThoughtC

Well the Mongol invasion changed Central Asia and Asia in General. The Mongols (and allied Turks) were the reason the Russians united, Turan defeated Iran, from the ashes many irrigated lands became dry steppe land, and some valleys experienced mass genocide in a scale never seen until the Holocaust (ie. Bamian) In fact, during the one period of foreign occupation in China, when the Mongols ruled China as the Yuan Dynasty, Chinese cultural norms ended up besting the Mongols, having a role in their. The plague, named the Black Death by later historians, had a devastating effect on the European population in the fourteenth century As China sought to break through the web of sanctions placed upon it in 1989, it looked first to the countries of Asia. These countries had a different view of China than the U.S. and the west did The economic changes also elevated the status of many peasants who otherwise would have been doomed to life on a manorial estate. Women also benefited from this shift, as many women engaged in business enterprises. The changes also began a shift away from the landed aristocracy of early medieval Europe towards a commercial class

How Did the Mongol Invasions Affect Global History

The Mongol general, apparently impressed by Hasan Jalal's defense, accepted the surrender and in turn increased his territory. From that point, Hasan Jelal's was spared from further attacks, under the conditions that he paid tribute and took part in other campaigns in western Asia alongside the Mongols Early Russian settlers to Buryatia brought agriculture to the river valleys, and developed an economic symbiosis with the cattle-breeding, nomadic Buryat tribes around them. That doesn't mean it.

Classical China Powerpoint and Summary Cards at Clements

Road trade and both were politically subordinate to Mongol rule. 3 While this thesis does qualify political and economic effects, it doesn't address differences. Acceptable • There were economic similarities but political differences to the Mongols' effects in the Middle East and Russia. This thesis is weak, but marginally acceptable The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren listen (help · info); Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; [mɔŋɡ(ɔ)ɮˈiːŋ ɛt͡sˈɛnt ˈɡurəŋ]; also Орда (Horde) in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire. Already vastly experienced from his campaigns under Genghis Khan against the Xia and Jin states in East Asia, the general was the supreme field commander of the forces which invaded western Asia and eastern Europe, even if the figurehead of the campaign was Batu (aka Bat-Qan, c. 1205-1255 CE), nephew of Ogedei Khan The Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia lasted from 1219 to 1221. It marked the beginning of the Mongol Conquest of the Islamic States, and it also expanded the Mongol invasions, which would ultimately culminate in conquest of virtually the entire known world save western Europe, Scandinavia, Arabia, north Africa, part of southeast Asia, and Japan The establishment of rule in Persia and the Middle East brought Islam rule in the region to brief halt. The extent of the Mongol conquest was limited by the Mongols' growing disunity due to the geographic overextension of the empire. As disunity increases, the Mongols increasingly lost the resources for further conquest

Mongol empire - Effects of Mongol rule Britannic

Bradley A

Across the Mongol Empires The Mongol Empire was the largest land-based empire in history and brought together the breadth of most of Eurasia under a single rule. This facilitated substantial technological and cultural exchange through the medium of trade Muslims and Buddhists also sought to convert the Mongols. 1 In some cases, the hope of conversion came long after the initial Mongol onslaught in the first half of the thirteenth century that left. The mongols solved this problem by creating services stations, called yams every twenty miles to protect travelers and give them a place to get a hot meal and rest. They made traveling the Silk Road safe. The mongol empire was brought down by what built it up, trade. The black death lived in the saliva of fleas, these fleas lived on the backs. East Asia -Shannon Tiezzi. Over a year since COVID-19 burst onto the scene, the East Asian region has weathered the storm remarkably well. The hard data of case counts and deaths puts the region.

The horses of the Mongols turned out to be no match for the new weapons of war: artillery. Marozzi deftly moves from the golden age of Samarkand, Bukhara and Herat under the Mongol dynasties, to the European empires of 19th century Asia, and on to the ecological and economic catastrophes that befell the Soviet Union in the 20th century Even when the Mongols seemed to be genuinely interested in Christianity, there was a dearth of Christian missionaries to go to the Mongol lands—the most famous example of this being the experience of the Polo family. 34 When the Polos returned from the court of Khubilai Khan in 1269, they brought a message from the Great Khan for the Pope. The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren listen (help · info); Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; Template:IPA-mn; also Орда (the Horde) in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. Originating in the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern.

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Global China: From the Mongols to the Ming Harvard

Thus, the Byzantines, by diverting the Turks' attention from Egypt, brought a Turkic army to Asia Minor from Persia and Central Asia. The Seljuk and Byzantine armies met at Manzikert in eastern. The New Russian Empire (Russian: Новой Российская Империя; Novoy Rossiyskaya Imperiya), commonly called the Russian Empire or just Russia, is a country in north Eurasia.It shares borders with over 14 countries spanning from Europe to the Far East of Asia. With over 6.5 million sq mi of mainland (not including colonies), it is the largest country on Earth, by quite some. Paris (AFP) - Horse domestication changed the face of Eurasia, helping ancient Huns and Mongols supplant western 'Indo-European' farmers in an incremental westward drive that also brought Hepatitis B and plague, scientists said Wednesday. In three studies published in the journals Science and Nature, experts reported sequencing the genomes of dozens of humans who lived between 2,500 BC and. The Mongol armies that established the largest land empire in history, stretching across Asia and into eastern Europe, are imperfectly understood. Often they are viewed as screaming throngs of horsemen who swept over opponents by sheer force of numbers rather than as disciplined regiments that carried out planned and practiced maneuvers

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